The 1999 World Series was the ninety-seventh year overall, and ninety-fifth played, of the modern World Series which began in 1903. In the final year of the twentieth century, the Yankees solidified their status as the most dominant team in American sports. The new dynasty showed no signs of slowing down.
(The 1999 World Series logo. Photo courtesy of Wikipedia.)
1999 World Series
New York Yankees (AL) over Atlanta Braves (NL), 4-0
Managers: Joe Torre (New York); Bobby Cox (Atlanta)
Hall of Famers*
New York: Joe Torre (manager)
Atlanta: John Schuerholz (executive), Bobby Cox (manager), Tom Glavine, Greg Maddux, John Smoltz
Series MVP: Mariano Rivera, P (New York)
Coming off a scandal the previous year, impeachment hearings began on President Bill Clinton. Despite misgivings, the government failed to gain enough vote to remove Clinton from office, although it’s rumored that it did have an impact on the Presidential race the next year.
Elsewhere, the West Nile virus first occurred in the United States. NATO began bombings on Yugoslavia following ethnic cleansing in neighboring Kosovo. In sports, Lance Armstrong became an American hero, winning the Tour de France for the first time (more on that later). On home soil, the United States won the Women’s World Cup in a penalty shootout with China. Brandi Chastain converted the winning penalty. Also in sports, Brookline Golf Club saw the Americans pull off the greatest comeback in the history of the Ryder Cup golf tournament at the time. Justin Leonard’s 45-foot putt did the European team in, after some motivational words from non-playing captain Ben Crenshaw.
(Justin Leonard celebrates making his 45-foot putt to win the Ryder Cup. Photo courtesy of http://www.rydercup.com)
Tragically, the golf world would lose one of its own. Mere months after winning the U.S. Open on the final hole against Phil Mickelson, Payne Stewart would die in a plane crash after his charter plane lost cabin pressure over the Dakotas. Another plane crash would take one of America’s favorite sons. John F. Kennedy, Jr., known affectionately as “John-John,” went missing with his wife, Carolyn Bessette, and his sister-in-law Lauren on July 16. All three went down with the plane, crashing into the water. We cried when John-John saluted his father’s casket in November 1963 on his third birthday. Now, we had new reason to weep for him. The “Kennedy curse” continued.
(The wreckage of John F. Kennedy Jr.’s plane is recovered. Photo courtesy of Daily Mail.)
On April 20, chaos and unspeakable tragedy awaited. That day, high school students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold came late to school that day at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. They entered a hill near the school and opened fire. Moving through the school, they made their way to the library where the biggest massacre of the day occurred, in only seven minutes. Twelve students and a teacher lost their lives, before the perpetrators pulled the gun on themselves. It was the deadliest mass school shooting in American history.
In the wake of that, Americans were preparing for the new millennium. A computer bug known as Y2K was rumored to cause mass chaos – because programmers had only adjusted the last two digits. As it was, it was mostly mass hysteria, and the 2000s came in with few problems.
A cultural phenomenon began that year, as the phrase “Is that your final answer?” entered the lexicon. Based on the UK game show, the American version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? debuted. On November 20, John Carpenter (no relation to the film director) became the first person anywhere in the world to win $1 million on a network game show.
(John Carpenter wins the top prize on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Photo courtesy of http://www.millionaire.wikia.com)
As baseball entered the last year of the century, the Yankees looked better. In a controversial moment, new commissioner Bud Selig allowed Toronto Blue Jays pitcher Roger Clemens to insist on a trade after two years. Unhappy with the lack of winning in Toronto, Clemens invoked his trade clause (seen by many as illegal) and went to the New York Yankees. For many Boston Red Sox fans, it was the ultimate stab in the back. He was Fredo Corleone now.
Elsewhere in Toronto, manager Tim Johnson was supposed to enter his second year. He had led the Blue Jays to an 88-74 record, only four games out of the wild card. Many credited this to his motivational stories he would tell his players about serving in the Vietnam War. But after a newspaper report, Johnson was found to have lied about this. After constant media persistence, Johnson was fired and replaced by Jim Fregosi.
One year after the great home run chase, Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa looked for a repeat performance. Neither would reach their numbers from the previous year, but still had amazing totals – 65 for McGwire and 63 for Sosa. Despite this, neither player could lead their team to the division title, going instead to the Houston Astros, led by a pair of twenty-game winners, Jose Lima and Mike Hampton.
After acquiring Randy Johnson, the second-year Arizona Diamondbacks were in the playoffs. Manager Buck Showalter looked to lead the D’Backs to the title, and they shocked the Majors by winning the NL West.
The Braves continued their dominance in the NL East, with third baseman Chipper Jones winning league MVP honors. Maddux, Glavine, and Smoltz were their usual selves, and the offense was still good. But controversy was brewing. Reliever John Rocker did an interview with Jeff Pearlman for Sports Illustrated, where he made disparaging remarks about minorities and the city of New York. Whether this influenced the Mets or not, they came back hard this year, their best season since 1988. For much of the year, Jack McKeon and the Cincinnati Reds held the lead for much of the season. But then the Reds fell apart and the Mets rallied, forcing a one-game playoff in Cincinnati for the wild card. In that game, Al Leiter pitched the Mets to a 5-0 victory. After the Braves had criticized Mets players for their bravado, the Mets were in the playoffs.
(New York Mets pitcher Al Leiter wins the one-game playoff in Cincinnati. Photo courtesy of http://www.reds.enquirer.com)
Elsewhere in New York, Joe DiMaggio passed away at the beginning of the year, at age 84. Later in the Bronx, David Cone came in to pitch in an interleague game against the Montreal Expos on July 18. After a falling out, Yogi Berra and George Steinbrenner reconciled and Berra was honored that day. Additionally, former World Series hero Don Larsen was in attendance that day. Cone went on to pitch a perfect game, the second straight year a Yankee pitcher had done it.
(David Cone celebrates with his catcher Joe Girardi after throwing a perfect game at Yankee Stadium. Photo courtesy of New York Post.)
But hands down, the biggest stories of the year took place in Boston. First, the city hosted the All-Star Game that year. Mark McGwire put on a show in the home run derby, smashing home run after home run onto Lansdowne Street. Fans were lining up behind the Green Monster to try to catch the home runs that left the stadium. Despite this, Ken Griffey, Jr. won the event.
(Mark McGwire puts on a show in the Home Run Derby at Fenway Park. Photo courtesy of http://www.nesn.com)
In the actual All-Star Game that year, hometown hero Pedro Martinez started for the American League. He faced six batters, and struck out five, including Sosa and McGwire. Prior to the festivities, an ailing Ted Williams was introduced the way he wanted to be, as “the greatest hitter who ever lived.” Known for his antipathy toward the fans, Williams finally tipped his cap to the Fenway faithful. As for the game, by the way, the AL won that game, 4-1.
(Ted Williams tips his cap to the Fenway Park crowd. Photo courtesy of Boston Globe.)
(Pedro Martinez takes the mound in the 1999 All-Star Game. Photo courtesy of Boston Globe.)
For Pedro Martinez, 1999 was his breakout year. He won the pitching Triple Crown (leading the league in wins, ERA, and strikeouts), going 23-4 with 313 strikeouts and a 2.07 ERA. I’ll tell you, as a 12-year-old about to graduate elementary school, I never saw anybody like Pedro in 1999. He ran away with the Cy Young Award. In addition to the All-Star game, three other games stand out.
In September that year, the Red Sox came into Yankee Stadium, looking to gain momentum in the wild card chase. Pedro gave up a second inning home run to Chili Davis. As it turns out, it would be the only hit that Pedro gave up all game. On top of that, Martinez struck out 17 Yankee hitters, winning the game 3-1. It was arguably the best Boston moment since Clemens’ first 20 K game in 1986.
(The 17-strikeout game in Yankee Stadium was Pedro at his finest. Photo courtesy of Boston Globe.)
As it turned out, Martinez didn’t win the AL MVP Award. Perhaps they were afraid to give it to a pitcher, but with all due respect to winner Ivan Rodriguez, there was nobody better that year.
The Yankees won the division by four games. Despite Texas catcher Ivan Rodriguez winning the MVP award, it again was no contest as New York not only swept Texas for the second straight year, but also allowed Texas only one run in the series, after the Rangers scored 945 in the regular season. For Texas, they wouldn’t make it back to the playoffs again until 2010.
Boston won the wild card and opened the ALDS against Cleveland. Nomar Garciaparra had a breakout season as well in ’99, and staked Boston to a 2-0 lead in Game 1. But the bullpen faltered once again, after Martinez was forced out due to a back injury. Derek Lowe replaced him and Jim Thome hit a two-run blast to tie the score. In the bottom of the ninth, the Tribe won the first game when Travis Fryman hit a walk-off single. It got worse in the second game, as Bret Saberhagen was rocked hard, losing the second game 11-1. Things were looking like more Boston heartbreak. Heading home, Boston had to win all three games to win the series.
Back at Fenway Park, things looked pretty grim early. But Indians starter Dave Burba left with a forearm strain, and the score was 3-3 heading into the bottom of the seventh. Mike Hargrove bungled by bringing in his presumed Game 4 starter Jaret Wright out of the bullpen. The Red Sox loaded the bases, when John Valentin came up. In the top half of the inning, his error helped Cleveland tie the score. This time, he came through with a two-run double to give the Red Sox the lead for good. Brian Daubach followed with a three-run homer, and one more run scored in the inning to give Boston a 9-3 win. They were still alive.
Because of Hargrove’s gamble, Bartolo Colon was forced to start on three days’ rest for the first time in his career. Despite Boston’s pitching being a disaster, Colon and Cleveland were even worse, and the Red Sox evened the series. And you’re not reading this wrong – the score was 23-7. Yes, Cleveland’s pitching was so bad that the Red Sox scored a postseason record 23 runs on them. Four Boston home runs forced a Game 5 back in Cleveland.
Cleveland went with Charles Nagy, and Boston countered with Bret Saberhagen. The latter was knocked out in the second inning, trailing 5-2, and Nagy didn’t survive the third. Heading into the bottom of the fourth, it was 8-8. Red Sox manager Jimy Williams played a gamble of his own – he took out Derek Lowe and brought in Pedro Martinez, who still wasn’t fully recovered from his back injury. But Pedro may have been at his absolute best, pitching 6.2 innings, allowing three walks, eight strikeouts, and no hits. After getting eight runs on seven hits into the fourth, Cleveland would get no more for the rest of the game.
It was still 8-8 in the seventh inning. After Sean DePaula – whom many believed Hargrove should have used in Game 3 – kept Boston off the board for three innings, Paul Shuey came in out of the pen. Afraid of pitching to Nomar, Shuey walked him intentionally. This brought up Troy O’Leary, who already had hit a grand slam in the game. O’Leary smashed his second home run of the game, giving an 11-8 lead to Boston. Jacobs Field fell silent.
(Troy O’Leary’s two home runs sparked Boston in Game 5. Video courtesy of YouTube.)
Boston added a run in the ninth, and Pedro never looked back. He clinched the ALDS with a masterful performance, on a sore back. Cleveland had blown a 2-0 lead, and for the first time since 1986, the Red Sox had won a postseason series. Indians manager Mike Hargrove was fired after this series.
(Pedro Martinez and catcher Jason Varitek celebrate the Red Sox’s impossible rally. Photo courtesy of http://www.boston.com)
For the first time, the two biggest rivals in the game would play each other in the postseason. Maybe Boston could finally break their drought. In Game 1, Boston led 3-2 in the seventh, before captain Derek Jeter tied the game off of Derek Lowe. For all of Boston’s talent in 1999, the bullpen was a major issue, and it showed in the ALCS. After the game went to extra innings, Rod Beck surrendered a walk-off home run to Bernie Williams to give the Yankees the first game. (Unfortunately, I can’t find a great picture or video for it.)
The Yankees narrowly won the second game as well, 3-2, despite a home run from Nomar Garciaparra. Pedro Martinez’s older brother Ramon took the loss. Game 3 would feature the old generation versus the new generation. Roger Clemens took the ball for the Yankees against Pedro.
(Pedro Martinez gets the Red Sox back in it in Game 3. Video courtesy of YouTube.)
Boston got a measure of revenge, not just on the Yankees but on Clemens himself. Actually, revenge is putting it mildly. Clemens was humiliated in front of his old fans. He was removed in the third inning, trailing 4-0. It would be 6-0 before the end of the inning. Boston wound up routing the Yankees 13-1, getting back to 2-1 in the series. Martinez struck out 12 and only two hits in seven shutout innings. Clemens was also subject to some of the funniest and cruelest chants that game. The call went, “Where is Roger?” The answer was, “In the shower.”
The Red Sox were back in the Series, heading to Game 4. The Yankees were leading 3-2 heading into the bottom of the eighth, when a controversial play occurred. Boston first baseman Jose Offerman reached first base. Mariano Rivera came into the game. John Valentin hit a check swing ground ball to Chuck Knoblauch at second base. Offerman seemed to avoid the tag, and they got the out at first. Suddenly, second base umpire Tim Tschida said that Knoblauch applied the tag. Just like that, it was an inning-ending double play. It’s still remembered in Boston as the “phantom tag.”
(The “phantom tag.” Video courtesy of YouTube.)
(A better view of the “phantom tag.” It’s very obvious that Offerman avoids the tag and stays inside the baseline. Photo courtesy of http://www.realclearsports.com)
The call totally demoralized the Red Sox. Rich Garces came in, but the Yankees scored six times in the ninth, winning 9-2. Who knows if the Red Sox could have tied the game, and maybe the series?
Ultimately, the Yankees closed out Boston’s dream with a 6-1 win in Game 5. Orlando “El Duque” Hernandez won MVP honors by winning his second game of the series. Boston’s dream was still on hold.
(The Yankees celebrate the 1999 AL pennant. Photo courtesy of http://www.mlb.com)
In the NL playoffs, Houston beat Atlanta in the first game, but then the Braves won the next three. Houston had suffered numerous postseason setbacks, and again had yet to win a postseason series. It would also prove to be the final year of the Astrodome. In the other series, New York defeated Arizona, with the final game resulting in backup catcher Todd Pratt winning the series with a walk-off home run.
(Todd Pratt wins the NLDS for the Mets in Game 4. Photo courtesy of Getty Images.)
After being considered “dead and buried,” the Mets were now playing their hated rivals in the NLCS. The series would go down as a classic, which is possible even if it didn’t go seven games. After starting catcher Javy Lopez went down with an injury, his backup Eddie Perez stepped in for him. Perez was known as Greg Maddux’s personal catcher, and he shocked New York with a home run. The Braves won the first game 4-2 with Maddux getting the win.
Perez’s second home run off of former Yankee star Kenny Rogers helped the Braves to a 2-0 lead. They won 4-3, with John Smoltz relieving Kevin Millwood to get the save. It was sign of things to come for Smoltz.
The Braves took the third game as well, 1-0, scoring the run in the first inning without a hit – a leadoff walk and two throwing errors, including one by Hall of Fame catcher Mike Piazza. Tom Glavine pitched seven innings, and now it looked for sure like the Mets were dead. Controversial closer John Rocker got his second save of the series.
Heading into Game 4, the Braves led 2-1 in the eighth. Rocker came in to try to get a four-out save. This time, however, New York’s resilience showed up. Facing elimination, John Olerud came through with a two-run single to give the Mets a 3-2 lead. Armando Benitez got the save and the Mets were still in it.
(Mets runners jump for joy as Atlanta reliever John Rocker looks on. Photo courtesy of http://www.centerfieldmaz.com)
Game 5 remains one of the most iconic baseball games in my lifetime. Greg Maddux was looking to win his second game. Facing him for the Mets was right-hander Masato Yoshii. New York struck first when John Olerud hit a first-inning home run, scoring him and Rickey Henderson. In the fourth inning, Bret Boone and Brian Jordan hit consecutive doubles to make it 2-2. As a steady rainfall continued throughout the game, Mets manager Bobby Valentine kept using his bullpen, including rookie Octavio Dotel and Kenny Rogers. In total, the Mets used a record nine pitchers in Game 5. The bullpens helped the score hold up into extra innings. In the top of the thirteenth, Keith Lockhart was on first with two out. Chipper Jones laced a shot to left field. Lockhart rounded third and headed for the plate. For all of the criticism of his defense, Mike Piazza was ready. Right fielder Melvin Mora cut off the ball, relayed it to Edgardo Alfonzo, who fired to Piazza. Got him at home! Piazza held on to the ball, and Atlanta had blown a scoring chance. In total, Atlanta set their own postseason record – they left nineteen runners on base in that game.
(Keith Lockhart is thrown out at home. Video courtesy of YouTube.)
In the bottom of the thirteenth, the Mets threatened, before Rocker came in. He got four outs, taunting the Mets fans all the while. The game finally culminated in the fifteenth inning. Lockhart redeemed himself with a triple off Octavio Dotel. The Braves were three outs away from the pennant. Kevin McGlinchy was asked to finish it. The Braves loaded the bases, including a stolen base and a beautiful sacrifice bunt. Todd Pratt drew a walk to tie the game. Then, on ailing legs, third baseman Robin Ventura came to bat. Ventura worked the count to 2-1. McGlinchy threw a fastball. At 9:47 p.m., Ventura became the hero by cracking a grand slam into the bleachers to win the game. Or at least it should have been. After the winning run touched plate, Todd Pratt mobbed Ventura in between first and second, so officially, Ventura would have to settle for a “grand slam single.” Still, the Mets had rallied to win 4-3, and were still alive in the series, now trailing 3-2.
(In a steady rainfall in New York, Robin Ventura’s “grand slam single” wins Game 5 for the Mets. Photo courtesy of http://www.mentalfloss.com)
Were the Braves about to commit the ultimate collapse? Would the New York ghosts come out again? Those were pressing questions heading back to Turner Field.
Starting on short rest, Al Leiter was rocked for five runs in the first inning of Game 6. But after Kevin Millwood tired, the Mets rallied to get it to 5-3. A two-run single made it 7-3 Atlanta in the sixth. But once again, the Mets rallied. John Smoltz allowed two runs to get the Mets to 7-5. Then Mike Piazza capped the rally with a two-run home run. Bob Costas made the call: “Tied at seven, hoping for Game 7!”
(Mike Piazza hits a home run off of John Smoltz, tying the game at 7-7. Video courtesy of YouTube.)
The Mets took the lead in the eighth when Melvin Mora drove in a run. It looked like the Mets would force a Game 7. But this time, the Braves rallied. After Eddie Perez singled, Otis Nixon pinch-ran and stole second. On top of that, Piazza sailed his throw into center field, allowing Nixon to go to third. Brian Hunter followed with a single to make it 8-8.
Again, the game went into extra innings. Mora came through again with a single to give the Mets the lead. Again, the Mets were three outs away from a seventh game. Again, the Braves rallied. This time, Ozzie Guillen singled in Andruw Jones to tie the game against Octavio Dotel. It was 9-9.
The Mets didn’t score in the top of the eleventh. Many thought Dotel would come out for the bottom half. Instead, Valentine went with Kenny Rogers, notorious for his postseason struggles. Gerald Williams led off with a double. Bret Boone moved him to third with a sacrifice bunt. One out. With the winning run ninety feet away, Rogers was forced to walk Chipper Jones and Brian Jordan. This brought up Andruw Jones, notorious for swinging at everything. But this time, Braves coach Don Baylor told him to be patient. Jones worked the count full. Rogers needed a strike. He made his pitch. Ball four! Williams came across to score, and Jones broke Mets’ fans hearts with a rare show of patience at the plate. The final score was 10-9. The Braves had won the pennant.
(Skip Caray makes the pennant winning call. Video courtesy of YouTube.)
It was anticipated to be another good matchup between the Braves and Yankees. Unfortunately, the Braves were spent, physically and emotionally. There was little to offer in the series.
The final World Series of the century opened at Turner Field. Greg Maddux and Orlando Hernandez faced off. League MVP Chipper Jones staked Maddux to a 1-0 lead in the bottom of the fourth inning. It was the only hit El Duque allowed for seven innings. It was still 1-0 in the eighth when Maddux began to tire. A walk and an error by Brian Hunter, combined with a John Rocker collapse, led to four Yankees scoring. That 4-1 scoreline held up, as the Braves only got one more hit. Mariano Rivera got the save to preserve Game 1.
The All-Century team was presented before Game 2, which was the highlight of the game. David Cone beat Kevin Millwood easily, 7-2. It was 3-0 in the first, and all seven Yankee runs came in the first five innings. Atlanta couldn’t get their two runs until the ninth inning.
Heading to the Bronx, Atlanta was running on fumes – and running out of time. This time, Tom Glavine pitched reasonably well. He had a 5-2 lead going into the seventh, before the Yankees pushed a run back. Chad Curtis came through with a home run to make it 5-3. Battling the flu, Glavine tried to pitch the eighth at Bobby Cox’s request, but he allowed a two-run shot to Tino Martinez to tie the game. Finally, in the bottom of the tenth, Chad Curtis his his second home run of the game, a walk-off shot against Mike Remlinger. Winning 6-5, the Yankees were up 3-0 in the Series.
(Chad Curtis wins Game 3 with a home run. Photo courtesy of http://www.sportsonearth.com)
But Curtis became the subject of controversy. Before the game, reporter Jim Gray interviewed Pete Rose, and very candidly asked him about the allegations of gambling. Rose was emphatically defiant, refusing to admit his culpability. Gray kept persisting, and Rose just as stubbornly refused to answer. After winning the third game, Curtis snubbed Gray for a game-winning interview, stating, “I can’t do it. As a team, we kind of decided – because what happened with Pete – we’re not going to talk out here on the field.” Joe Torre later stated that Curtis acted on his own.
Roger Clemens faced Smoltz in Game 4, two future Hall of Famers facing each other. Smoltz was looking to get the Braves back in it, against hope; Clemens wanted vindication for his postseason failures. In all of the Braves’ postseason losses, Smoltz was one of the few steady performers. Again, he pitched well, but the Yankees were patient, driving his pitch count to 75 by the third inning. In that inning, Tino Martinez drove in two runs and Jorge Posada added another. It was 3-0 Yankees. The Braves could do nothing against Clemens. Atlanta’s only run game in the eighth when Bret Boone singled in Walt Weiss. But Jim Leyritz tormented the Braves again with a solo home run, and Mariano Rivera was waiting. He would make it look easy, closing out the series-clinching 4-1 victory. Keith Lockhart flied to Curtis in left field for the final out.
(The victorious Yankees celebrate their 25th World title. Photo courtesy of New York Daily News.)
The Yankees had won their 25th title, most of any sport in North America. Bob Costas summed it up so succinctly: “Team of the decade. Most successful franchise…of the century.”
The Yankees became the first team in North America to win 25 championships.
Payne Stewart was friends with Chipper Jones, and died in between Games 2 and 3.
This was the final time that NBC covered the World Series. Ever since 2000, Fox had done the broadcast.
This was Atlanta’s fifth pennant of the decade, their fourth loss, and most recent pennant to date.
The Yankees are one of the few teams to pull of a “reverse sweep” – that is, they sweep by winning the first two games on the road.
This was the final time until 2013 that the two teams in each league had the best record.
New York became the first team to go 11-1 in the postseason, repeated only one other time.
Three Yankees players – Luis Sojo, Scott Brosius, and Paul O’Neill – lost their fathers during the course of the season. O’Neill’s father died the day of Game 4. Additionally, manager Joe Torre underwent surgery that year.
Chad Curtis was later convicted of numerous charges of being involved in sexual misconduct with minors, currently serving a 7 to 15 year sentence. He also ripped Derek Jeter for being “too friendly” with Seattle’s Alex Rodriguez during a bench-clearing brawl that year.
With the Knicks making the NBA Finals, this is the most recent time that the same city has played in the NBA Finals and the World Series in the same calendar year.
Had the two wild card winners won the pennant, it would have been a rematch of 1986. The Red Sox were actually a shock team that year, with very low expectations.
Playwright Richard Greenberg was reportedly inspired by this year’s Yankee team to write the 2003 Tony Award-winning play Take Me Out.
The dynasty was back. Joe Torre officially cemented his Hall of Fame legacy. The Braves would never get that close again. A potential dynasty went away with a whimper, while the other one continued with a roar.
References and Sources
New York Post.
New York Daily News.
The Tenth Inning (Ken Burns)
The Top 5 Reasons You Can’t Blame…Bobby Cox (ESPN Classic)
The Top 5 Reasons You Can’t Blame…The U.S. for their Ryder Cup Celebration (ESPN Classic)
Red Sox vs. Yankees: The Ultimate Rivalry (MLB Productions)
100 Years of the World Series (Eric Enders)
Yankees Suck! (Jim Gerard)
Now I Can Die in Peace (Bill Simmons)
The Yankee Years (Joe Torre, Tom Verducci)
Steinbrenner: The Last Lion of Baseball (Bill Madden)
George: The Poor Little Rich Boy Who Built the Yankee Empire (Peter Golenbock)
The Ultimate Book of Sports Lists (Andrew Postman, Larry Stone).
The Rocket That Fell to Earth (Jeff Pearlman)
The Ultimate Book of Sports Jerks (Michael Freeman)
The Underground Baseball Encyclopedia (Robert Schnakenberg)
God Save the Fan (Will Leitch)
Living on the Black (John Feinstein)
The Majors (John Feinstein)
Angels in America (Tony Kushner play)
Take Me Out (Richard Greenberg play)
Columbine (Dave Cullen)
Sports Illustrated, December 27, 1999.